Comparing the Biological Macromolecules
|Macromolecule||Basic Formula, key features||Monomer|
|Proteins||CHON −NH2 + −COOH +R group||Amino acids|
|Lipids||C:H:O Greater than 2:1 H:O (carboxyl group)||Fatty acid and glycerol|
|Nucleic Acids||CHONP pentose, nitrogenous base, phosphate||Nucleotides|
- 1 What are examples of monomers that make up each macromolecule?
- 2 What is a biological monomer?
- 3 How are macromolecule polymers assembled from monomers?
- 4 What are monomer proteins made of?
- 5 What is a lipid macromolecule?
- 6 What polymers make up lipids?
- 7 What macromolecule makes up the cell membrane?
- 8 In which way are polymers assembled of monomers?
- 9 Is lipid A macromolecule?
- 10 How is the basic structure of a polymer made up of monomers?
- 11 What are the monomers that make up cellulose?
- 12 How are proteins formed from monomers?
What are examples of monomers that make up each macromolecule?
Monosaccharides are the monomers that make up carbohydrates. Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide. Glycerol and fatty acids are the monomers that make up lipids. Nucleotides are the monomers that make up nucleic acids.
What is a biological monomer?
A monomer is a small molecule that reacts with a similar molecule to form a larger molecule. Monomers are the building blocks for biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins and carbohydrates.
How are macromolecule polymers assembled from monomers?
Most macromolecules are made from single subunits, or building blocks, called monomers. The monomers combine with each other via covalent bonds to form larger molecules known as polymers. In doing so, monomers release water molecules as byproducts.
What are monomer proteins made of?
For example, proteins are composed of monomers called amino acids. They are linked together to form a polypeptide chain, which folds into a three dimensional (3D) structure to constitute a functional protein (Figure 1).
What is a lipid macromolecule?
Lipids. Lipids are all similar in that they are (at least in part) hydrophobic. There are three important families of lipids: fats, phospholipids and steroids. Fats. Fats are large molecules made of two types of molecules, glycerol and some type of fatty acid.
What polymers make up lipids?
Groups of Monomers and Polymers Lipids – polymers called diglycerides, triglycerides; monomers are glycerol and fatty acids. Proteins – polymers are known as polypeptides; monomers are amino acids.
What macromolecule makes up the cell membrane?
Cell membranes are composed of proteins and lipids. Since they are made up of mostly lipids, only certain substances can move through. Phospholipids are the most abundant type of lipid found in the membrane. Phospholipids are made up of two layers, the outer and inner layers.
In which way are polymers assembled of monomers?
Monomers are assembled into polymers through a process called dehydration synthesis. Polymers are broken down into monomers through a process called hydrolysis (hydro = water, lyse = to break). Biologically important molecules are grouped into four classes: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Is lipid A macromolecule?
Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids are the four major classes of biological macromolecules —large molecules necessary for life that are built from smaller organic molecules. Macromolecules are made up of single units known as monomers that are joined by covalent bonds to form larger polymers.
How is the basic structure of a polymer made up of monomers?
A polymer is composed of many simple molecules that are repeating structural units called monomers. Covalent bonds hold the atoms in the polymer molecules together and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material.
What are the monomers that make up cellulose?
Cellulose is made of glucose monomers in the beta form, and this results in a chain where every other monomer is flipped upside down relative to its neighbors. Image modified from OpenStax Biology. Unlike amylose, cellulose is made of glucose monomers in their β form, and this gives it very different properties.
How are proteins formed from monomers?
proteins are made up of 21 different L-amino acids. these amino acids are joined together with peptide bonds. peptide bond is a bond between a caboxylic group of one amino acid with amino group of other amino acid.