Question: Why Do Biological Valves Detiorate?

Two related but distinct processes dominate in bioprosthetic valve dysfunction owing to deterioration of the cuspal tissue: calcification within the substance of the cusps (intrinsic mineralization), and degradation with ultimate failure and tearing of the connective tissue matrix [152–154].

Why do bioprosthetic valves fail?

Recent findings: Structural valve deterioration (SVD) remains the most frequent cause of premature bioprosthetic aortic valve failure. However, recent evidence suggests that SVD represents a spectrum, and that clinically silent hemodynamic valve deterioration frequently precedes and predisposes to overt SVD.

How long does biologic aortic valve last?

Because death and structural valve degeneration are competing outcomes, and most biological valves have a median valve survival (time to structural degeneration) in the 10 to 15 year range, many patients will die before the valve degenerates.

Why do heart valves deteriorate?

Untreated strep throat or other infections with strep bacteria that progress to rheumatic fever can cause heart valve disease. When the body tries to fight the strep infection, one or more heart valves may be damaged or scarred in the process. The aortic and mitral valves most often are affected.

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What are the disadvantages of biological valves?

The disadvantages of biological heart valves are a smaller valve orifice area (3) and the risk of structural valve degeneration (4), which may necessitate reoperation (table 1).

How long do bioprosthetic valves last?

Because most bioprosthetic valves are free from structural deterioration for 12 –15 years, many patients will die before the valves degenerate. The risk of tissue valve reoperation increases progressively with time, especially in younger patients.

What is structural valve deterioration?

SVD is an acquired intrinsic bioprosthetic valve abnormality defined as deterioration of the leaflets or supporting structures resulting in thickening, calcification, tearing, or disruption of the prosthetic valve materials with eventual associated valve hemodynamic dysfunction, manifested as stenosis or regurgitation.

How many times can a heart valve be replaced?

Sometimes, a patient’s own tissue can be used for valve replacement (called an autograft). Patients with biological valves usually do not need to take blood-thinning medicines. These valves are not as strong as mechanical valves, though, and they may need to be replaced every 10 years or so.

How long does aortic valve repair last?

They last 10-20 years. That’s not as long as mechanical valves, but they don’t lead to clots and you won’t need blood thinners.

What is the average age for heart valve replacement?

Fact: Valve Replacement and Heart Bypass surgery (or a combination of the two) are the most common procedures in the “elderly.” Fact: More than 30% of the patients having heart valve surgery are over 70. Fact: More than 20% of heart valve surgical patients are over 75 years of age.

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Why do aortic valves fail?

Aortic valve disease may be caused by a heart defect present at birth (congenital). It can also be caused by other conditions, including age-related changes to the heart, infections, high blood pressure or injury to the heart.

What is valve failure?

In heart valve disease, one or more of the valves in your heart doesn’t work properly. Your heart has four valves that keep blood flowing in the correct direction. In some cases, one or more of the valves don’t open or close properly. This can cause the blood flow through your heart to your body to be disrupted.

Why might a faulty valve cause problems for a person?

If the valve doesn’t open fully, it will block or restrict the flow of blood. This is called valve stenosis or valve narrowing. If the valve doesn’t close fully, the blood will leak back into the heart instead of forwards into the body.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of biological valves?

The main advantage of biological valves is that there’s less risk of clots forming, so lifelong anticoagulant treatment isn’t usually necessary. But biological valves tend to wear out a bit faster than mechanical valves and may eventually need to be replaced after many years.

How long do pig valves last in humans?

Apply today to advance your career. Tissue valves, which are made from pig heart valves or cow heart-sac tissue, typically last about 15 years. But they usually don’t require the lifelong use of anti-clotting drugs. Older people are more vulnerable to the bleeding side effects of warfarin.

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Why do we use pig heart valves?

Porcine (pig). These valves are actual pig heart valves, and they’re also treated to avoid rejection from your body. They perform similarly to cow valves, but they are less likely to calcify but are more likely to tear over time.

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