Vitamin C is one of the potent reducing agents and scavenger of free radicals in biological systems, working as a scavenger of oxidizing free radicals and harmful oxygen-derived species, such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and singlet oxygen [3, 4].
- 1 What is the biological function of vitamin C?
- 2 How does vitamin C function in the body?
- 3 What is the biologically active form of vitamin C?
- 4 What is a potential biological effect of vitamin C?
- 5 What is the biological function of vitamin A?
- 6 How is vitamin C excreted?
- 7 How does vitamin C help the immune system?
- 8 How does vitamin C work as an antioxidant?
- 9 What does vitamin C do for skin?
- 10 Why is vitamin C unstable?
- 11 Why Vit C is not synthesized in the human body?
- 12 How is vitamin C synthesized?
- 13 Can vitamin C be absorbed through the skin?
- 14 What role do vitamins C and E play in biological radical reactions?
What is the biological function of vitamin C?
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is necessary for the growth, development and repair of all body tissues. It’s involved in many body functions, including formation of collagen, absorption of iron, the proper functioning of the immune system, wound healing, and the maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth.
How does vitamin C function in the body?
Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is used to: Form an important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. Heal wounds and form scar tissue.
What is the biologically active form of vitamin C?
Vitamin C occurs in two forms, namely L-ascorbic acid (reduced form) and dehydro-L-ascorbic acid (oxidized form). Although in nature the vitamin is primarily present as ascorbic acid, both forms are biologically active. The L-isomer of ascorbic acid is biologically active; the D-isomer is not.
What is a potential biological effect of vitamin C?
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) inhibits oxidative damage, recycles other antioxidants, facilitates iron absorption, aids in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and is also an essential cofactor for enzymatic reactions required for the synthesis of carnitine, collagen, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.
What is the biological function of vitamin A?
Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucus membranes, and skin. It is also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A promotes good eyesight, especially in low light. It also has a role in healthy pregnancy and breastfeeding.
How is vitamin C excreted?
Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, which means it dissolves in water. In contrast to fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins do not get stored within the body. Instead, the vitamin C that you consume gets transported to your tissues via body fluids, and any extra gets excreted in urine ( 1 ).
How does vitamin C help the immune system?
Vitamin C is a critical micronutrient. It contributes to your immune defense system by supporting multiple cellular functions of your body’s adaptive immune systems. Being an antioxidant, it can also fight free radicals in the body, thereby decreasing inflammation and boosting immunity.
How does vitamin C work as an antioxidant?
Vitamin C is a monosaccharide oxidation-reduction (redox) catalyst found in both animals and plants. The antioxidant effect of vitamin C is due to its ability to donate electrons from both the second and third carbon.
What does vitamin C do for skin?
On top of that, vitamin C is an antioxidant, meaning it protects skin cells from damaging free radicals caused by UV exposure. It also inhibits melanin production in the skin, which helps to lighten hyperpigmentation and brown spots, even out skin tone, and enhance skin radiance.
Why is vitamin C unstable?
“Vitamin C has quite a complicated chemistry,” says Dr Coleman,“and because it’s a water-soluble vitamin, it becomes very unstable in water solutions. Additionally, vitamin C doesn’t penetrate the skin easily, it degrades on exposure to oxygen, and it favours a pH around three, which is too acidic for human skin.”
Why Vit C is not synthesized in the human body?
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, although they are unable to synthesize vitamin C (or l-ascorbic acid) endogenously due to a lack of l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of vitamin C biosynthesis (Nishikimi et al., 1994).
How is vitamin C synthesized?
Yeasts, plants and animals use different pathways to synthesize vitamin C. Yeasts synthesize D-erythroascorbate from D-arabinose, whereas plants synthesize vitamin C from GDP-D- mannose and animals synthesize vitamin C from UDP-D-glucuronate [14-17].
Can vitamin C be absorbed through the skin?
Vitamin C is readily absorbed through the intestine wall and transported throughout the body. However, Vitamin C absorption through the skin greatly depends on the pH of the Vitamin C application. Because the skin is slightly acidic, so, too, must the Vitamin C delivery system be acidic. A pH below 4.0 is ideal.
What role do vitamins C and E play in biological radical reactions?
As an antioxidant, vitamin C provides protection against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage by scavenging of reactive oxygen species, vitamin E-dependent neutralization of lipid hydroperoxyl radicals, and by protecting proteins from alkylation by electrophilic lipid peroxidation products.