There are 92 naturally occurring elements, each differing from the others in the number of protons and electrons in its atoms. Living organisms, however, are made of only a small selection of these elements, four of which—carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O)—make up 96.5% of an organism’s weight.
- 1 Which element is found in virtually all biological molecules?
- 2 Why is complementarity necessary for replication?
- 3 What is the relationship between the rate of a process and its thermodynamic spontaneity?
- 4 What are the four most common elements in organic molecules and which common macromolecules always contain all four of these elements?
- 5 What do the four lines around a carbon atom represent?
- 6 Why is molecular complementarity important in biomolecules?
- 7 Why are two strands of DNA called complementary?
- 8 What is the principle of complementarity in biology?
- 9 What’s the relationship between the spontaneity of a process or reaction and its speed?
- 10 How will you assess the thermodynamic spontaneity of a biological reaction?
- 11 What are the conditions for spontaneity?
- 12 What are the 4 major macromolecules?
- 13 What elements are found in all 4 macromolecules?
- 14 What are the 4 inorganic compounds?
Which element is found in virtually all biological molecules?
All of these molecules, called biomolecules because they are part of living matter, contain carbon, which is the building block of life. Carbon is a very unique element in that it has four valence electrons in its outer orbitals and can form four single covalent bonds with up to four other atoms at the same time.
Why is complementarity necessary for replication?
Explain why complementarity would have been necessary for the development of self-replicating molecules? It took randomly assembling molecules through complementarity to make more complex molecules and those that were more organized and able to self-replicate accurately were favored in natural selection.
What is the relationship between the rate of a process and its thermodynamic spontaneity?
What is the relationship between the rate of a process and its thermodynamic spontaneity? In thermodynamics, the spontaneity of a reaction is the direction in which and extent to which a chemical reaction proceeds. Kinetics is the speed of the rxn--how fast a rxn takes place.
What are the four most common elements in organic molecules and which common macromolecules always contain all four of these elements?
The four most common elements in organic molecules in order of decreasing abundance by dry mass are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. All four of these elements are found in proteins and nucleic acids because they are parts of the building blocks of these polymers.
What do the four lines around a carbon atom represent?
ANS: The four lines surrounding the “C” represent the four bonds that carbon can form. By forming bonds with many other elements, carbon can form large, complex molecules like proteins.
Why is molecular complementarity important in biomolecules?
Complementarity of DNA strands in a double helix make it possible to use one strand as a template to construct the other. This principle plays an important role in DNA replication, setting the foundation of heredity by explaining how genetic information can be passed down to the next generation.
Why are two strands of DNA called complementary?
What is meant when we say that DNA strands are Complementary? Because each DNA strand can be used to make the other Strand, the strands are said to be complementary. The DNA molecules separate into two strands. Then, 2 new complementary strands are produced following the rules of Base Pairing.
What is the principle of complementarity in biology?
Complementarity is an epistemological principle derived from the subject —object or observer—system dichotomy, where each side requires a separate mode of description that is formally incompatible with and irreducible to the other, and where one mode of description alone does not provide comprehensive explanatory power.
What’s the relationship between the spontaneity of a process or reaction and its speed?
The spontaneity of a reaction tells whether a reaction favors or disfavors the formation of the products under the prevailing conditions. Meanwhile, the speed of a reaction or reaction rate represents how fast or slow a reaction will occur in the current conditions.
How will you assess the thermodynamic spontaneity of a biological reaction?
The best indicator of spontaneity in a reaction is the change in Entropy (S or DS). The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that for a reaction to be spontaneous, there must be an increase in entropy. Entropy is often defined as a measure of the disorder of a system, this is not a very accurate definition.
What are the conditions for spontaneity?
Two conditions for a reaction to be spontaneous are: achieve maximum energy and achieve minimum energy. In thermodynamics, a spontaneous is the time evaluation. Processes which involve an entropy of the system are spontaneous.
What are the 4 major macromolecules?
11.1 Introduction: The Four Major Macromolecules These are the carbohydrates, lipids (or fats), proteins, and nucleic acids.
What elements are found in all 4 macromolecules?
The four main classes of organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) that are essential to the proper functioning of all living things are known as polymers or macromolecules. All of these compounds are built primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but in different ratios.
What are the 4 inorganic compounds?
In general, there are four groups of inorganic compound types. They are divided into bases, acids, salts, and water. Note that these are the broadest categories of inorganic compounds.